Author: Fenne 
Tönnies Fenne
Book: Man. 
Low German Manual of Spoken Russian

On the basis of the original manuscript
electronically edited by
Pepijn Hendriks and Jos Schaeken,
Slavic Department, Leiden University,
Leiden, 1.4.2006;
TITUS version by Jost Gippert,
Frankfurt a/M, 8.8.2010

The present document contains an electronic text edition of a seventeenth-century bilingual Russian-Low German conversation manual known as Tönnies Fenne's Low German Manual of Spoken Russian, Pskov 1607. This electronic edition is based on the original manuscript, kept in the Royal Library in Copenhagen under the shelf mark Thott 1104 4to and originally published in a four-volume edition (TF 1961-1986). To facilitate future scholarly research, the text of the entire manual is now for the first time made available electronically.
Tönnies Fenne's manual* is one of approximately fifteen similar manuals from the 16th and 17th centuries that are known of today,* and has proven a most valuable resource for both linguists and historians.
In the preface of the first and second volumes of the edition, the editors, L.L. Hammerich and Roman Jakobson, promised "an examination of Fenne's methods as collector, transcriber and translator and of his gradual progress in the mastery of Russian" (TF I, p. 7), as well as "a systematic analysis of [the manual's] phonetic and grammatical information" (TF II, p. XXVII). Unfortunately, even more than 35 years after the publication of TF II, this analysis has still not materialised.
In a recent article, A.A. Zaliznjak has made a case for the linguistic reliability of the manual on the basis of the current state of berestology and historical dialectology (1998). In addition, research of a more philological kind has shown that the genetic affiliation of Fenne's manuscript with earlier conversation manuals is much stronger than is commonly assumed (cf. especially Fałowski and Witkowski 1992; Fałowski 1994, 1996, 1997; Bolek 1997; Xoroškevič 2000).
To the best of our knowledge, no other recent articles have elaborated on these issues. The editors are convinced that this must at least partly be attributed to the sheer impossibility of handling all of Fenne's linguistic data without having the text available in some electronic form. The electronic text edition presented here aims at filling this void. It is part of an ongoing project whose goal is a full description and evaluation of the linguistic material present in our document.*
To maximise the value for future research, the editors have refrained from interpreting the material as much as possible.* The present edition is therefore by and large diplomatic, faithfully reproducing the contents and the layout of each page. Special attention has been paid to peculiarities of potential linguistic or philological interest, such as the many corrections in the manuscript. Although the exact nature of these corrections could not always be established with certainty, their presence has been consistently indicated.

Note that the Cyrillic material is presented here as in the original for the first time, rendering frequent consultation of the facsimile edition superfluous.
We have deviated from the diplomatic approach in the following cases:
* i and j are both rendered as i;
* letter variants, both in Cyrillic and in Latin script, have been ignored (with the exception of о and ѡ, у and ѹ, and я and ѧ, which are consistently distinguished);
* titla in Cyrillic words have been ignored;
* punctuation and capitals have been normalised, based on modern usage;*
* decoration (especially of initials) has been ignored;
* rarely used diacritical marks (e.g. in и·· [trema], е· and и· [dot above]) have been ignored;*
* the textual layout of phrases on the page has underwent minor standardisation;
* in the original manuscript, braces span multiple lines, grouping the contents of these lines together; in this electronic text edition, single-line braces (}) have been used on each line instead (see e.g. p. 110);
* different kinds of check marks in the margins of the document (see e.g. p. 88) are clearly of much later date and in pencil rather than ink; they have been ignored.
During the preparation of this electronic text edition, the original manuscript was consulted at the Royal Library in Copenhagen.* All observations can therefore be considered to be based on the original rather than on the 1961 facsimile edition.
The quality of the facsimile can be considered very good, although the black-and-white photographs do not reflect all subtle colour differences. It should be noted that the manuscript is remarkably regular, especially given its size. This particularly applies to the conversation part, from p. 187 onwards.
In this electronic text edition we have mainly indicated colour differences pertaining to larger units, such as pages, sheets or sections. Colour differences that stand out on a lower level (especially in emendations like ÿ < i, or u, v < w) have not been indicated.
It is hard to tell when the frequent diacritical mark Ťñ was added. Oftentimes its occurrences stand out on a page by a darker colour. The scribe may have added them immediately after finishing a page, but the marks could also have been added on a later occasion. The same may hold for the frequent correction of w into v or u.

   ( )   resolved abbreviation
   [ ]   letter(s) read on the basis of ambiguous visible information
   { }   conjecture
   ...   lacuna of unspecified length
   x   superscript letter
   x   crossed out letter
   x   supralinear insertion
   x   inline insertion

The editors welcome comments and critical remarks regarding this electronic text edition. These can be sent to pepijn.hendriks apud let.leidenuniv.nl.

[In the present TITUS edition, the following substitutions have been made:
Latin characters:
      s + trema   >   ś˜
      y + trema   >   y˜
      o + macron   >   o˜
      æ + tilde   >   æ˜
      e + tilde   >   e˜
      i + tilde   >   i˜
      s + tilde   >   š˜
      z + tilde   >   ž˜
      lb-ligature (pound)   >   l_b

Cyrillic characters:
      ot-ligature   >   
with grave   >   а\
thousand-sign   >   #~
Other signs:
½   >   1/2 etc.
Superscript characters in the Cyrillic text have only been supplied up to p. 45. J.G.]

   Bolek, A.
      1997   "Czy Tönnies Fenne zasługuje na miano pionera slawistyki?". In: A. Bolek et al. (eds.), Słowianie wschodni. Między językiem a kulturą. Księga jubileuszowa dedykowana Profesorowi Wiesławowi Witkowskiemu w siedemdziesiątą rocznicę urodzin, 63-67. Kraków.
   Fałowski, A. (ed.)
      1994   Ein Rusch Boeck. Ein russisch-deutsches anonymes Wörter- und Gesprächsbuch aus dem XVI. Jahrhundert. Köln.
      1996   "Ein Rusch Boeck...". Rosyjsko-niemiecki anonimowy słownik i rozmówki z XVI wieku. Analiza językowa. Kraków.
      1997   "Einn Russisch Buch" Thomasa Schrouego. Słownik i rozmówki rosyjsko-niemieckie z XVI wieku. Część II. Transliteracja tekstu. Indeks wyrazów i form rosyjskich. Kraków.
   Fałowski, Adam, and Wiesław Witkowski (eds.)
      1992   "Einn Russisch Buch" by Thomas Schroue. The 16th-century Russian-German dictionary and phrase-book. Part one. Introduction. Photocopies. Cracow.
   Gernentz, H.J. (ed.)
      1988   Untersuchungen zum russisch-niederdeutschen Gesprächsbuch des Tönnies Fenne, Pskov 1607. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Sprachgeschichte. Berlin.
      1961-86    Tönnies Fenne's Low German Manual of Spoken Russian. Pskov 1607. I: L.L. Hammerich et al., Facsimile Copy (1961). II: L.L. Hammerich, R. Jakobson, Transliteration and Translation (1970). III: A.H. van den Baar, Russian-Low German Glossary (1985). IV: H.J. Gernentz, Mittelniederdeutsch-neuhochdeutsches Wörterbuch zum Russisch-niederdeutschen Gesprächsbuch (1986). Copenhagen.
   Xoroškevič, A.
      2000   "K istorii sozdanija nemecko-russkix slovarej-razgovornikov Tomasa Šrove i Tennisa Fenne". Slavia Orientalis 49/1, 77-91.
   Zaliznjak, A.A.
      1998    "Iz nabljudenij nad 'Razgovornikom' Fenne". In: A.A. Gippius et al. (eds.),
ΠΟΛΥΤΡΟΠΟΝ. K 70-letiju Vladimira Nikolaeviča Toporova, 235-275. Moskva.

Copyright 2006 -- This edition is copyrighted by Pepijn Hendriks and Jos Schaeken;
it may be used for any non-profit, scholarly or educational purpose
provided that the source of the material is identified.

Page: 0 
Line: 1  Soli Deo gloria.
Line: 2 
Sic eunt ordine fata.
Line: 3 
Line: 4 
Line: 5 
Tu solus altissimus.

Line: 6 
Line: 7 

Line: 8 
Ich habe getahn das mein {vnd} was my˜r
Line: 9 
G[odt besche]rdt.
Line: 10 
Ey˜n ider tuhe das sein, s{o} [w]{ir}dt die Tichticheit
Line: 11 
der spraken gemert.

Line: 12 
Ao:: 1609 d(en) 9 Juni: [H]{ab}
Line: 13 
Ich TF. Disz Buch Hinrich
Line: 14 
Wistinghauszen Vorerdtt.

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This text is part of the TITUS edition of Fenne, Manual.

Copyright TITUS Project, Frankfurt a/M, 9.8.2010. No parts of this document may be republished in any form without prior permission by the copyright holder.