Black Yajur-Veda: Taittiriya-Pratisakhya
Part No. 2
Verse: 1 atʰa śabdotpattiḥ //
Now for the origin of sound.
Verse: 2 vāyuśarīrasamīraṇātkaṇṭhorasoḥ saṃdʰāne //
By the setting in motion of air by the body, at the junction of throat and breast.
Verse: 3 tasya prātiśrutkāni bʰavantyuraḥ kaṇṭhaḥ śiro mukʰaṃ nāsike iti //
The parts which give it audible quality are breast, throat, head, mouth, and nostrils.
Verse: 4 saṃvr̥te kaṇṭhe nādaḥ kriyate //
When the throat is closed, tone is produced.
Verse: 5 vivr̥te śvāsaḥ //
When it is opened, breath is produced.
Verse: 6 madʰye hakāraḥ //
When in an intermediate condition, the h-sound is produced.
Verse: 7 tā varṇaprakr̥tayaḥ //
Those are the materials of alphabetic sounds.
Verse: 8 nādo 'nupradanam̐ svaragʰoṣavatsu //
In vowels and sonant consonants, the emission is sound.
Verse: 9 hakāro hacaturtʰeṣu //
In h and in sonant aspirate mutes, it is h-sound.
Verse: 10 agʰoṣeṣu śvāsaḥ //
In surd consonants, it is breath.
Verse: 11 bʰūyānpratʰamebʰyo 'nyeṣu //
And more of it in the other surd letters than in the simple surd mutes.
Verse: 12 avarṇe nātyupasam̐hr̥tamoṣṭhahanu nātivyastam //
In forming the a-vowels, the lips and jaws must not be too nealy approximated, nor too widely separated.
Verse: 13 okāre ca //
Also in uttering o.
Verse: 14 oṣṭhau tūpasam̐hr̥tatarau //
But the lips are more nearly approximated.
Verse: 15 īṣatprakr̥ṣṭāvekāre //
In utterin e, they are slightly protracted.
Verse: 16 upasam̐hr̥tatare hanū //
The jaws more nealy approached.
Verse: 17 jihvāmadʰyāntābʰyāṃ cottarāñjambʰyāntsparśayati //
And one touches the borders of the upper back jaws with the edges of the middle of the tongue.
Verse: 18 upasam̐hr̥tatare ca jihvāgramr̥kārarkāralkāreṣu barsveṣūpasam̐harati //
The jaws, also, are more closely approximated, and the tip of the tongue is brought into close proximity to the upper back gums, in r̥, r̥̄, and ḷ.
Verse: 19 ekeṣāmanusvārasvarabʰaktyośca //
As also, according to some, in anusvāra and svarabhakti.
Verse: 20 anādeśe praṇyastā jihvā //
In the absence of special direction, the tongue is thrust down forward.
Verse: 21 akāravadoṣṭhau //
The lips are as in the utterance of a.
Verse: 22 tālau jihvāmadʰyamivarṇe //
In the i-vowels, the middle of the tongue is to be approximated to the palate.
Verse: 23 ekāre ca //
Also in e.
Verse: 24 oṣṭhopasam̐hāra uvarṇe //
In the u-vowels, there is approximation of the lips.
Verse: 25 ekāntarastu sarvatra prakr̥tāt //
But, in all cases, with an interval of one from the preceding.
Verse: 26 akārārdʰamaikāraukārayorādiḥ //
The beginning of ai and au is half an a.
Verse: 27 saṃvr̥takaraṇataramekeṣām //
Which, in the opinion of some, is uttered with the organs more closed.
Verse: 28 ikāro 'dʰyardʰaḥ pūrvasya śeṣaḥ //
Of the former, the rest is one and a half times i.
Verse: 29 ukārastūttarasya //
But, of the latter, u.
Verse: 30 anusvārottamā anunāsikāḥ //
anusvāra and the last mutes are nasal.
Verse: 31 svarāṇā yatropasam̐hārastatstʰānam //
In the case of the vowels, that is their place of production, to which approximation is made.
Verse: 32 yadupasam̐harati tatkaraṇam //
That is producing organ, which makes the approsximation.
Verse: 33 anyeṣāṃ tu yatra sparśanaṃ tatstʰānam //
But in the case of the other letters, that is place of production, where contact is made.
Verse: 34 yena sparśayati tatkaraṇam //
That is producing organ, whereby one makes the contact.
Verse: 35 hanūmūle jihvāmūlena kavarge sparśayati //
In the k-series, one makes contact with the root of the tongue at the root of the jaws.
Verse: 36 tālau jihvāmadʰyena cavarge //
In the c-series, with the middle of the tongue, upon the palate.
Verse: 37 jihvāgreṇa prativeṣṭya mūrdʰani ṭavarge //
In the ṭ-series, with the tip to the tongue, rolled back, in the head.
Verse: 38 jihvāgreṇa tavarge dantamūleṣu //
In the t-series, with te tip of the tongue, at the roots of the teeth.
Verse: 39 oṣṭhābʰyāṃ pavarge //
In the p-series, with the two lips.
Verse: 40 tālau jihvāmadʰyāntābʰyāṃ yakāre //
In y, with the two edges of the middle of the tongue, upon the palate.
Verse: 41 repʰe jihvāgramadʰyena pratyagdantamūlebʰyaḥ //
In r, with the middle of the tip of the tongue, back of the roots of the teeth.
Verse: 42 dantamūleṣu ca lakāre //
Also in l, at the roots of the teeth.
Verse: 43 oṣṭhāntābʰyāṃ dantairvakāre //
In v, with the edges of the lips, along with the teeth.
Verse: 44 sparśastʰāneṣūṣmāṇa ānupūrvyeṇa //
The spirants, in their order, are produced in the places of the mutes.
Verse: 45 karaṇamadʰyaṃ tu vivr̥tam //
But the middle of the producing organ is unclosed.
Verse: 46 kaṇṭhastʰānau hakāravisarjanīyau //
The throat is place of production of h and visarjanīya.
Verse: 47 udayasvarādisastʰāno hakāraṃ ekeṣām //
In the opinion of some authorities, h has the same position as the begiining of the following vowel.
Verse: 48 pūrvāntasastʰāno visarjanīyaḥ //
visarjanīya has the same position as the end of the preceding vowel.
Verse: 49 nāsikyā nāsikāstʰānāḥ //
The nose-sounds have the nose as their place of production.
Verse: 50 mukʰanāsikyā vā //
Or they are produced by the mouth and nose.
Verse: 51 vargavaccaiṣu //
And, in them, the organ of production is as in the series of mutes.
Verse: 52 nāsikāvivaraṇādānunāsikyaṃnāsikāvivaraṇādānunāsikyam //
Nasal quality is given by the unclosing of the nose.